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Asia Dominates World Waterfowl Production

by 5m Editor
3 February 2010, at 12:00am

Some 83 per cent of world duck meat is produced in Asia and more than 99 per cent of goose meat, with China dominating the league table in the output of both products, writes Terry Evans for ThePoultrySite.

Global Duck Meat Output

In the years from 2000 to 2008, world output of duck meat escalated by an average of around 3.5 per cent per year from 2.88 million tonnes (mt) to 3.78mt.

World duck meat production ('000 tonnes)
Region 2000 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
Africa 56.5 56.6 56.6 57.4 57.5 57.1
N & C America 80.0 106.7 112.8 113.3 111.3 112.0
- USA 52.6 79.0 85.1 85.6 83.4 84.0
S America 16.3 16.7 16.7 17.4 17.5 17.6
- Argentina 7.3 7.4 7.4 7.5 7.5 7.7
- Brazil 7.2 7.4 7.4 7.5 7.5 7.5
Asia 2316.5 2494.3 2712.6 2744.4 2936.2 3121.9
- China 1866.7 1950.3 2150.0 2175.3 2328.2 2518.2
- Malaysia 64.3 102.0 107.0 108.0 111.0 111.0
- Thailand 102.5 84.8 85.0 84.9 84.9 84.9
- Viet Nam 69.6 88.2 88.2 86.0 84.0 84.0
- India 55.9 65.0 67.6 70.2 72.8 72.8
- Myanmar 29.3 58.3 60.5 67.9 74.2 74.2
- Korea Rep 44.7 46.0 52.0 53.0 57.0 54.0
- Indonesia 13.8 22.2 21.4 24.5 44.1 45.2
Europe 404.2 424.6 438.5 425.8 456.0 459.0
- France 233.3 238.1 233.8 233.4 246.8 248.6
- Germany 40.0 37.0 40.1 38.5 55.8 60.8
- Hungary 43.4 48.1 53.1 44.5 51.4 51.4
Oceania 8.8 10.3 10.8 11.7 12.2 12.2
- Australia 8.0 9.5 9.9 10.9 11.4 11.4
WORLD 2882.4 3109.4 3348.2 3370.2 3590.7 3780.0
Source: FAO

The growth rate in China, averaging 3.8 per cent a year, outstripped that for the world total, to exceed 2.5mt in 2008. Duck meat has traditionally played an important role in Chinese food culture. A growing demand has seen a positive move away from traditional backyard or smallholder flocks to large-scale commercial systems. Income growth has been a major factor driving the demand for this meat, as has continued urbanisation of the population. Trends in food processing, increased specialisation and food safety concerns, especially public health issues, have also provided a stimulus to intensive production. Indeed, since 2005, to promote intensive waterfowl production, the Ministry of Agriculture has indicated that traditional farming methods need to be changed.

While China dominates the picture for Asia, this is not the only country in the region to witness marked industry growth since 2000. In Malaysia, output rose over 70 per cent from a little under 65,000 tonnes (t) to 110,000t between 2000 and 2008.

Production in Myanmar more than doubled from 29,300t to more than 74,000t.

The duck industry in Indonesia trebled in size to reach 45,200t in 2008.

A 30 per cent gain was recorded in India where the annual total went up from almost 56,000t to nearly 73,000t.

In recent years, output in both Thailand and Viet Nam appears to have stagnated at around 85,000t.

While Europe is the second largest duck producing region, not only does output account for just 12 per cent of the world total, but this expansion mainly occurred between 2000 and 2004, as in the four years to 2008 it grew by just eight per cent to almost 460,000t.

France, with annual production of 249,000t accounting for more than 50 per cent of the European total, expanded output by only seven per cent over the eight years.

Although the industry in Germany grew by some 53 per cent, output in 2008 was still less than 61,000t, while in Hungary, the third largest producer in Europe, production exceeded 51,000t in 2008, some 18 per cent more than in 2000.

Although, during this review period, the duck industry grew fastest in North and Central America, this was entirely due to developments in the US, where output jumped by almost 60 per cent from a little under 53,000t to 84,000t. However, it should be noted that most of this expansion took place between 2000 and 2005, and that since then output has been 'flat'.

There is little interest in duck production in South America, the regional total having only moved up by eight per cent over the period to just 17,600t in 2008, with 80 per cent being produced in Argentina and Brazil, both recording annual outputs of around 7,500t.

Again, few ducks are grown in Oceania, yearly output amounting to only a little over 12,000 tonnes, with some 94 per cent being produced in Australia.

World Goose Meat Production

While China is clearly the dominant duck-producing country in the world, its role in goose meat output is even more pronounced, accounting for over 99 per cent of Asian output and around 94 per cent of the global total. Although the goose meat data collected by the Food and Agriculture Organisation in Rome includes the production of guinea fowl, so far as can be ascertained the quantities of guinea fowl meat are small and not significant in the totals shown.

While geese are also grown for their feathers and liver production, the data relates only to meat production.

World goose and guinea fowl meat production ('000 tonnes)
Region 2000 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
Africa 55.6 55.3 55.3 55.6 56.1 55.1
N & C America 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
S America 0.9 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
Asia 1766.6 1812.4 1948.5 1954.4 2103.6 2249.6
- China 1751.9 1799.2 1935.5 1941.7 2091.6 2237.6
Europe 87.0 108.8 93.2 72.1 70.9 69.8
Oceania 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1
WORLD 1911.0 1978.5 2099.1 2084.2 2232.7 2376.6
Source: FAO

Outside of Asia, goose meat production between 2000 and 2008 appears to have stagnated, with the exception of Europe where it suffered a sharp decline. In the latter region, output slumped by almost 20 per cent from 87,000t to less than 70,000t. As a result, Asia's share of the global total went up from 92.4 per cent to 94.7 per cent.

China excepted, the only other Asian country to have recorded growth in goose meat production during this period is Myanmar, where annual output is estimated to have risen from 1,930t to around 2,500t.

For Africa, the estimates of production have changed little over the years at around 55,000 tonnes of which, it is assessed that Egypt accounted for around 42,000t or some three-quarters of the region's total.

The only other country in this region producing sizeable quantities is Madagascar, where annual outputs are calculated to have amounted to around 12,600 tonnes.

The decline in production in Europe of some 17,000 tonnes virtually mirrors the cutbacks that have incurred in the industry in Hungary, where output has slumped by some 44 per cent from around 48,000 tonnes to the latest estimate for 2008 of less than 27,000.

February 2010