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Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in South Africa

by 5m Editor
13 June 2005, at 12:00am

SOUTH AFRICA - This is a Follow-up report (No. 5) via OIE on the HPAI in South Africa.

Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in South Africa - SOUTH AFRICA - This is a Follow-up report (No. 5) via OIE on the HPAI in South Africa.

See also: 17 December 2004, 29 October 2004, 22 October 2004, 27 August 2004, 13 August 2004

Information received on 6 June 2005 Dr Botlhe Modisane, Acting Senior Management of Animal Health, National Department of Agriculture, Pretoria:

End of previous report period: 15 December 2004 (see Disease Information, 17 [51], 380, dated 17 December 2004).

End of this report period: 3 June 2005.

Date of first confirmation of the event: 1 December 2004.

Clinical disease: no.

Nature of diagnosis: laboratory.

Location of the new outbreaks:

First administrative divisionName of the locationLatitudeLongitude
Northern Cape ProvinceOudam (Kimberley)24º 26' S29º 27' E
Western Cape ProvinceAlfalfahof33º 29' 03'' S22º 45' 38'' E
Western Cape ProvinceAndrieskraal33º 33' 36'' S21º 53' 46'' E
Western Cape ProvinceAssegaaybosch33º 45' 31'' S21º 32' 58'' E
Western Cape ProvinceBaviaanskrans33º 33' 13'' S21º 10' 31'' E
Western Cape ProvinceBeersekraal33º 22' 34'' S21º 06' 31'' E
Western Cape ProvinceBesemkop33º 30' 42'' S21º 41' 39'' E
Western Cape ProvinceBischoff33º 37' 54'' S22º 18' 29'' E
Western Cape ProvinceBo Plaas (Homestead)33º 38' 25'' S22º 19' 32'' E
Western Cape ProvinceBoplaas Nooitgedacht33º 38' 19'' S21º 54' 01'' E
Western Cape ProvinceBotteliersfontein34º 10' 16'' S21º 37' 43'' E
Western Cape ProvinceBrandkraal31º 57' 45'' S23º 57' 45'' E
Western Cape ProvinceBroodkas34º 10' 18'' S21º 04' 52'' E
Western Cape ProvinceBuffeljagsfontein33º 38' 00'' S21º 52' 00'' E
Western Cape ProvinceBuffeljagsfontein33º 37' 09'' S21º 50' 33'' E
Western Cape ProvinceBuffelsfontein34º 15' 20'' S21º 53' 11'' E
Western Cape ProvinceChandelier33º 39' 42'' S22º 13' 53'' E
Western Cape ProvinceCoetzeeskraal32º 00' 03'' S24º 01' 20'' E
Western Cape ProvinceCrodini (Ruggens Boerdery)34º 10' 50'' S20º 24' 01'' E
Western Cape ProvinceDagbreek34º 15' 17'' S21º 53' 07'' E
Western Cape ProvinceDankbaar33º 38' 11'' S21º 56' 22'' E
Western Cape ProvinceDe Fonteine (Fonteine Trust)34º 04' 19'' S21º 26' 18'' E
Western Cape ProvinceDie Wieg33º 47' 08'' S22º 20' 02'' E
Western Cape ProvinceDoornboom34º 04' 43'' S20º 59' 38'' E
Western Cape ProvinceDoornkloof33º 29' 18'' S22º 35' 25'' E
Western Cape ProvinceErfenis (Karoo Valley Farms)33º 44' 40'' S22º 25' 00'' E
Western Cape ProvinceEstoriel33º 49' 31'' S22º 34' 51'' E
Western Cape ProvinceExcelsior33º 29' 03'' S22º 42' 25'' E
Western Cape ProvinceEzeljacht33º 49' 02'' S22º 34' 30'' E
Western Cape ProvinceFairview33º 37' 10'' S22º 04' 43'' E
Western Cape ProvinceFairview34º 14' 17'' S21º 53' 45'' E
Western Cape ProvinceGamka Oos33º 34' 07'' S21º 42' 18'' E
Western Cape ProvinceGamka Oos33º 34' 18'' S21º 42' 26'' E
Western Cape ProvinceGamka-Wes33º 33' 23'' S21º 40' 51'' E
Western Cape ProvinceGanskraal33º 47' 05'' S22º 43 06,5 E
Western Cape ProvinceGoedeverwagting33º 36' 32'' S21º 41' 16'' E
Western Cape ProvinceGoedeverwagting33º 35' 03'' S21º 43' 10'' E
Western Cape ProvinceGoedeverwagting33º 36' 11'' S21º 42' 53'' E
Western Cape ProvinceGoedeverwagting33º 36' 47'' S21º 41' 22'' E
Western Cape ProvinceGoggadou33º 45' 00'' S22º 20' 00'' E
Western Cape ProvinceGood Hope32º 48' 00'' S21º 58' 00'' E
Western Cape ProvinceGrandview32º 01' 26'' S24º 04' 08' E
Western Cape ProvinceGreylands33º 36' 25'' S22º 05' 07'' E
Western Cape ProvinceGrootdoornrivier33º 47' 52'' S22º 14' 59'' E
Western Cape ProvinceGrootfontein34º 22' 00'' S21º 25' 00'' E
Western Cape ProvinceGrootrivier (1)33º 31' 23'' S21º 06' 19'' E
Western Cape ProvinceGwarrievlei34º 16' 45'' S20º 51' 17'' E
Western Cape ProvinceHartebeesvlakte33º 29' 44'' S21º 25' 06'' E
Western Cape ProvinceHighgate33º 39' 30'' S22º 08' 11'' E
Western Cape ProvinceHolgate33º 45' 49'' S22º 36' 18'' E
Western Cape ProvinceHoningfontein34º 12' 13'' S21º 12' 33'' E
Western Cape ProvinceHooggenoeg33º 30 42'' S22º 41' 53'' E
Western Cape ProvinceHornstras34º 12' 00'' S21º 40' 42'' E
Western Cape ProvinceHotomskloof (Karoo Valley Farms)33º 36' 16'' S22º 15' 31'' E
Western Cape ProvinceJakkalsfontein34º 12' 31'' S21º 08' 25'' E
Western Cape ProvinceJan Fourieskraal33º 37' 10'' S21º 50' 37'' E
Western Cape ProvinceJan Fourieskraal33º 38' 39'' S21º 50' 13'' E
Western Cape ProvinceKamanasie33º 37' 11'' S22º 18' 19'' E
Western Cape ProvinceKamanatie loop33º 37' 44'' S22º 18' 50'' E
Western Cape ProvinceKammarooi33º 35' 40'' S22º 16' 41'' E
Western Cape ProvinceKandelaarsrivier33º 41' 40'' S22º 09' 05'' E
Western Cape ProvinceKandrift33º 39' 32'' S22º 09' 04'' E
Western Cape ProvinceKensa33º 37' 08'' S22º 05' 33'' E
Western Cape ProvinceKleinberg (Elandsberg Boerdery)34º 10' 43'' S21º 54' 47'' E
Western Cape ProvinceKlowekampe33º 38' 25'' S22º 19' 32'' E
Western Cape ProvinceKluitjieskraal (Ruggens Boerdery)34º 06' 13'' S20º 21' 30'' E
Western Cape ProvinceKoega (Du Toit en Seuns)34º 05' 36'' S21º 01' 15'' E
Western Cape ProvinceKransrivier34º 08 49,6 S21º 01' 35'' E
Western Cape ProvinceKromkloof33º 45' 02'' S21º 22' 06'' E
Western Cape ProvinceKromkloof33º 45' 01'' S21º 19' 21'' E
Western Cape ProvinceKruisrivier33º 26' 00'' S21º 51' 48'' E
Western Cape ProvinceKruisvallei (Big Foot Ostriches)34º 07' 55'' S21º 47' 29'' E
Western Cape ProvinceLangverwacht34º 15' 17'' S20º 50' 17'' E
Western Cape ProvinceLangverwacht33º 36' 54'' S21º 54' 14'' E
Western Cape ProvinceLategansvlei33º 31' 51'' S22º 02' 03'' E
Western Cape ProvinceLe Mirage33º 39' 04'' S22º 04' 30'' E
Western Cape ProvinceLeeukuil30º 54' 47'' S18º 43' 15'' E
Western Cape ProvinceLimerick33º 25' 51'' S21º 53' 27'' E
Western Cape ProvinceLushof33º 28' 28'' S22º 14' 51'' E
Western Cape ProvinceMatjiesrivier33º 24' 25'' S22º 00' 49'' E
Western Cape ProvinceMeerlust34º 18' 32'' S20º 47' 60'' E
Western Cape ProvinceMet Lus33º 37' 50'' S21º 57' 20'' E
Western Cape ProvinceMiddelplaas33º 28' 31'' S22º 15' 03'' E
Western Cape ProvinceMuldersbank33º 39' 04'' S22º 04' 30'' E
Western Cape ProvinceNelsdrift32º 53' 59'' S21º 58' 04'' E
Western Cape ProvinceNelsrivier33º 31' 15'' S22º 32' 17'' E
Western Cape ProvinceNooitgedacht33º 40' 04'' S22º 04' 36'' E
Western Cape ProvinceOnverwaght (Karoo Valley Farms)33º 36' 45'' S22º 13' 51'' E
Western Cape ProvinceOudemuragie34º 11' 37'' S21º 03' 20'' E
Western Cape ProvinceOudemuragie34º 11' 53'' S21º 02' 37'' E
Western Cape ProvincePaardebont33º 47' 33'' S21º 52' 51'' E
Western Cape ProvinceParklands (Bato Boerdery)34º 21' 39'' S20º 46' 21'' E
Western Cape ProvincePlaas 25634º 07' 19'' S21º 01' 51'' E
Western Cape ProvinceRietvlei33º 55' 00'' S21º 28' 00'' E
Western Cape ProvinceRietvlei34º 10' 05'' S22º 00' 45'' E
Western Cape ProvinceRoodeheuwel33º 58' 04'' S22º 17' 24'' E
Western Cape ProvinceRooi Krans (Snyberg Boerdery)33º 28' 07'' S22º 57' 14'' E
Western Cape ProvinceRooiheuwel33º 36' 54'' S22º 17' 01'' E
Western Cape ProvinceRooiheuwel (Kaapsuid Maatskappy)33º 37' 02'' S22º 16' 47'' E
Western Cape ProvinceRooiheuwel (Kleinspoort Boerdery)33º 37' 55'' S22º 16' 05'' E
Western Cape ProvinceRooikloof33º 35' 06'' S21º 41' 07'' E
Western Cape ProvinceSkeiding (Pietie Uys Familie Trust)34º 04' 00'' S20º 48' 00'' E
Western Cape ProvinceSkoongesigt33º 28' 44'' S22º 47' 23'' E
Western Cape ProvinceSnymanskraal34º 10' 38'' S21º 28' 39'' E
Western Cape ProvinceStolsvlakte33º 36' 53'' S22º 17' 16'' E
Western Cape ProvinceStolsvlakte (Kaapsuid Maatskappy)33º 35' 55'' S22º 16' 07'' E
Western Cape ProvinceStolsvlakte (Karoo Valley Farms)33º 36' 16'' S22º 51' 31'' E
Western Cape ProvinceTreintjiesrivier33º 14' 29'' S21º 58' 09'' E
Western Cape ProvinceTuisbes33º 37' 09'' S22º 17' 41'' E
Western Cape ProvinceVleitjie34º 16' 11'' S20º 25' 07'' E
Western Cape ProvinceVoorbedacht33º 23' 26'' S22º 04' 01'' E
Western Cape ProvinceVredelus33º 28' 49'' S22º 14' 13'' E
Western Cape ProvinceVrederus33º 39' 04'' S22º 06' 43'' E
Western Cape ProvinceWaaikraal (Micro Farms)33º 35' 00'' S22º 22' 32'' E
Western Cape ProvinceWansbek33º 54' 32'' S19º 39' 53'' E
Western Cape ProvinceWarmwater33º 37' 45'' S21º 47' 28'' E
Western Cape ProvinceWelbedacht33º 36' 44'' S21º 58' 59'' E
Western Cape ProvinceWelgeluk (Kaapsuid Maatskappy)33º 37' 00'' S22º 12' 00' 'E
Western Cape ProvinceWelgerus (Kwessie)33º 37' 43'' S21º 43' 21'' E
Western Cape ProvinceWelgevonden33º 32' 44'' S22º 33' 34'' E
Western Cape ProvinceWest Bank (West Bank Stud)33º 37' 29'' S22º 14' 40'' E
Western Cape ProvinceWestfield34º 22' 36'' S20º 49' 43'' E
Western Cape ProvinceWilgerivier33º 34' 38'' S23º 21' 05'' E
Western Cape ProvinceWynandsrivier33º 37' 16'' S22º 02' 26'' E
Western Cape ProvinceZeekoegat33º 38' 13'' S22º 08' 41'' E

Description of affected population: ostriches.

Diagnosis:

Laboratories where diagnosis was madeSpecies examinedDiagnostic tests usedDateResults
Stellenbosch Veterinary Laboratoryostrichhaemagglutination inhibition (HI) testDec. 2004 to May 2005positive
Onderstepoort Veterinary Instituteostrichhaemagglutination inhibition testDec. 2004 to May 2005positive
Onderstepoort Veterinary InstituteostrichPCR(1)Dec 2004 to May 2005negative
Onderstepoort Veterinary Instituteostrichvirus isolationDec 2004 to May 2005negative

Source of outbreaks or origin of infection: unknown or inconclusive.

Western Cape Province

Increased serosurveillance on each of the 749 ostrich farms from December 2004 to May 2005 resulted in positive serology in 124 farms in the Province. All epidemiological groups were tested in each ostrich farm and only adult birds (breeder birds and birds for slaughter) tested positive for H5 antibodies. No clinical signs were observed. All virus isolation and PCR tests conducted on all seropositive farms were negative.

The date of the start of the event is unknown as no clinical signs were ever observed. The entire Province was placed under quarantine on 17 February 2005 and strict movement control was put in place. Controlled slaughter of birds on seropositive farms is permitted subject to negative PCR results. No positive PCR results have been found to date. Serosurveillance (HI) and PCR tests are continuing.

Northern Cape Province

An ongoing routine serological survey identified positive samples in ostriches on one farm in the Northern Cape Province. Only samples from adult birds (breeder birds and birds for slaughter) were positive. No clinical signs were observed. Virus isolation and PCR tests were negative. Serological samples from all 36 other ostrich farms in the Northern Cape Province tested negative.

The farm where positive serology was found was placed under quarantine. PCR tests were negative and no virus was isolated. Serosurveillance (HI) and PCR tests are continuing.

Control measures undertaken:

- quarantine;

- movement control inside the country;

- screening.

Treatment of affected animals: no.

Vaccination prohibited: yes.

Other details/comments:

- Following the end of the last outbreak reported in Eastern Cap Province (completion of stamping out and disinfection of all seropositive farms) on 13 January 2005, continuing serosurveillance is being done on all ostrich farms in this Province and no positive results have been found to date.

- Ongoing serosurveillance in chickens throughout South Africa continues to yield negative results.

(1) PCR: polymerase chain reaction

Source: Office International des Epizooties - 10th June 2005

5m Editor