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Evaluation of the Effect on Broiler Chickens Sprayed and Fogged with Virkon S

by 5m Editor
4 July 2005, at 12:00am

By S.E. Cheng, D.V.M., PhD., K.M. Kilgore, B.S., P.C. Gerber, A.A.S., T.A. Sheets from A. H. Robins Research Farm - A 17-day, floor-pen study was conducted to evaluate the effect on broiler chicks when Virkon S was sprayed on the floor and wall before and fogged into the air after chicks were placed into the pen.

ABSRACT

On Day -1 (1 day before placement of the chicks) the broiler house was cleaned and the sprayed with a 1% Virkon solution (the recommended concentration) at 600 ml/m2 (double the recommended quantity). On Day 0 twenty 1-day-old and twenty 2-week-old healthy male Hubbard X Hubbard broiler chicks were placed into 2 separate pens (5' X 6' each) with 4" of new wood shavings covering the floor and with access to feed and water ad libitum. The room was then fogged with 1% Virkon at 2000 ml/100 m3 (double the recommended quantity) on Days 0, 7 and 14. The evaluation of the effect of Virkon on the chicks was based on the results of examining the eyes and feet of all the chicks at 1 and 3 hours and at 1 and 2 days after each fogging on Days 0, 7 and 14.

No noticeable adverse effect to the eyes and feet of the chicks was observed. Therefore, Virkon, when used at the recommended concentration (1% solution), is safe to spray the chicken house with before and safe to fog into the house after placement of the chicks.

INTRODUCTION

A 17-day, floor-pen study (89-223, C-57-89) was initiated on day 0, and terminated on day 18, to evaluate the effect on broiler chicks when Virkon was sprayed before and fogged after the placement of the chicks in the pen. This study was conducted according to Protocol 89-223.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

ANIMALS

Twenty 1-day-old and twenty 2-week-old male Hubbard X Hubbard broiler chicks purchased from Hubbard Farms Inc, Walpole, NH, were used in this study. All chicks were vaccinated against Newcastle Disease, Infectious Bronchitis and Marek's Disease at the hatchery.

FACILITIES

The experiment was conducted at the A.H. Robins Research Farm, Ashland, VA. The floor-pen room with a dimension of 12' X 12' X 9' was in cinder blocksided building with a concrete floor and metal roof. The pen area contained 2 separate adjoining pens. Each pen measured 5' X 6'. Temperatures were maintained with electric brooders. The temperature under each electric brooder was maintained between 70° and 100°F and the house temperatures were generally maintained between 60° and 85°F.

Birds were placed on 4" of new wood shavings.

Continuous artificial lighting was maintained through the study.

FEEDS

Feed was prepared by Southern States Inc, Harrisonburg, VA, from a formula characteristic of industry nutrient levels (Table 1). The formula meets the nutritional requirements set forth in Nutritional Requirements of Poultry 8th rev. ed., National Research Council (NRC) 1984.

TEST PROCEDURE

On Day -1 (one day before placement of the chicks) the broiler house, the ceiling, walls, and the floor area were rinsed with water and thoroughly cleaned. A 1% Virkon solution (11.4 gals) was measured out from a container and poured into a sprayer. When the floor was dry, the ceiling, walls and floor were totally wetted with a coarse spray of the solution. The quantity of Virkon solution used was 600 ml/10 ft, which was double the recommended quantity. When the floor was dry 4 to 5 hours later, new wood shavings were placed into the confined area, which was divided into 2 pens with a dimension of 5' X 6' for each pen.

Raw data was recorded into Research Notebook No. 81742. The final study report is stored in the Information Services Section of A. H. Robins Company.

RESULTS

The birds and the litter conditions were normal before fogging, and both the birds and the litter were wet after fogging. However, they returned to normal within 4 hours.

Spraying with Virkon at the recommended concentration (1% solution) at double the quantity (600 ml/m2) in a cleaned broiler house before the placement of the bedding and then fogging with Virkon at the recommended concentration at double the quantity (2000 ml/100 m3) after the chicks were placed into the pens did not cause any abnormalities or damage to the eyes and feet of the 1-day-old or 2-week-old chicks on Days 0, 7 or 14.

CONCLUSIONS

No noticeable adverse effect to the eyes and feet of the chicks was observed. Therefore, Virkon was safe when used at the recommended concentration (1% solution) for spraying the broiler house before and for fogging the broiler house after the placement of the chicks.

Table 1 - Feed Formulation
INGREDIENTS
% IN STARTER
Yellow corn (ground) 46.9075
Alfalfa 1.4000
Vegetable blend fat 7.3500
Soybean oil meal (dehulled, 48%) 41.2500
Limestone (ground) 0.3500
Phospahte deluorinated 2.0500
Salt (plain) 0.2500
Trace mineral premix 434 0.0400
Choline C1 60% 0.0200
L. Vitamin premix 0.1500
D.L. Methionine 0.1200
Calcium propionate 0.1000
0.06% Selenuim premix 0.0125

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

On Day 0 twenty 1-day-old and twenty 2-week-old healthy normal Hubbard X Hubbard male chicks were wing banded and placed in Pens 1 and 2, respectively. Feed and water were provided ad libitum.

Seven hundred and forty-one ml of 1% Virkon solution was measured out from a container and placed in a fogger (Fogmaster, model 6280, manufactured by the Fogmaster Corp, Hlaleam, FL). On Day 0, 4 to 5 hours after the chicks has acclimated to the floor pen, the pen was fogged for approximately 6 to 8 minutes. All chicks' eyes and feet were examined for any abnormality or possible damage 1 and 3 hours and 1 and 2 days after the fogging. Examinations were repeated at the same times after foggings on Days 7 and 14.

Bird and litter conditions were checked daily.

All birds that died during the study were necropsied to determine the cause of death. Birds unable to get to food and water were culled at the discretion of the study director.

At the termination of the study, all chickens were killed and disposed of by burying. Any remaining feed was buried.

Source: DuPont Animal Health Solutions - July 2005