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Indonesia Poultry And Products Poultry Annual 2007

by 5m Editor
12 September 2007, at 12:00am

By the USDA, Foreign Agricultural Service - This article provides the poultry industry data from the USDA FAS Poultry and Products Annual 2007 report for Indonesia. A link to the full report is also provided. The full report includes all the tabular data which we have ommited from this article.

Report Highlights

The Indonesian broiler population is estimated to increase to 889 million birds in 2007 compared to 840 million in 2006, and is forecast to increase slightly to 899 million birds in 2008. Despite continuous problems with HPAI, consumer consumption of poultry meat remains strong. Per capita consumption of broiler meat is expected to reach 3.7 kg/capita/year in 2007. The new MOA regulation issued in August 2007 lifts the ban on Mechanically Deboned Meat imports. However, the import ban for chicken parts remains in place.

Situation and Outlook

Although per capita consumption of broiler meat is relatively low, the Indonesian poultry sector is expected to continue growing. However, several fundamental problems continue that hinder growth such as the dependency on imported feed ingredients, imported parent and grand parent stocks, and inconsistent government policy.

Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) continues to spread throughout the country and claim more human fatalities. The government’s lack of coordination, insufficient funding, lack of avian disease experts, and poor laboratory facilities are among the major obstacles to control the disease.

Production

The overall broiler population in 2007 is estimated to reach 889 million birds, and is forecast to slightly increase to 899 million birds in 2008 since the increasing demand for poultry meat will be offset with the increasing price of feed ingredients in the international market and slow growth in consumer purchasing power. In line with this, broiler meat production in 2007 is estimated to increase to 824,000 tons. Consumers prefer poultry with an average live weight of 1.5 kg live weight, an increase from last year preference of 1.4 kg live weight, has also increased broiler meat production.

Out of the total poultry population in 2006, broiler, native chicken, and layer chicken accounted for 69 percent, 21 percent, and 7 percent respectively. Most of the broiler population is located in West Java (47 percent), East Java (18 percent), Central Java (7 percent), and North Sumatera (5 percent).

To reduce the decline in broiler meat sales due to AI concerns, the Indonesian government continuously campaigns through media and other venues to encourage safe preparation and consumption of eggs and poultry meat. A decline in chicken meat sales usually occurs for about three weeks after a human fatality related to AI is reported. Then consumer confidence improves and consumption of chicken meat resumes.

In November 2006, Day Old Chicken production rose sharply to over 23 million DOC per week. It is reported that Indonesia imported a large amount of parent stock in October 2006, and breeder operation reflect this expansion. Total DOC production installed capacity is 26 million per week. DOC production in 2007 is estimated to reach 19 million DOC per week. The sector still relies on imported breeding stock from European countries and United States.

Poultry feed production in 2007 is estimated to reach 6.5 million tons and forecast to increase to 7.1 million tons in 2008. Most feed ingredients are imported. Because of the increase of feed ingredient prices on the world market and a distorted import regime for Meat and Bone Meal, the feed sector is demanding that the government lift the 5 percent import duty for corn that accounts for 50-55 percent share in feed formulation and allow expanded access to U.S. meat and bone meal (MBM). Reportedly, the GOI refused to lift the 5 percent import duty on corn as an effort to protect domestic corn farmers, and still has not opened to MBM from the United States. If the situation continues, there will be an opportunity for U.S. DDGS (distillers dried grain solubles) sales to Indonesia, assuming GOI does not impose an import duty on DDGS equivalent to the corn duty.

Potential for further growth in broiler production remains bright due to the low level of per capita consumption. However, several fundamental problems such as the dependency on imported feed ingredients and breeder stock, insufficient cold storage, lack of funding, continuing AI problem, low consumer purchasing power, and inconsistent government policy will impede growth.

AI Situation

Avian influenza remains a huge and complicated problem influencing the overall poultry sector and causing concerns about human health in this country. Since it was first detected in poultry in 2004 and the death of three persons from a family in Tangerang, Banten, a district close to Jakarta in July 2005, until September 21, 2007, approximately 13.5 million head of poultry have been infected by AI and depopulated. A total of Rp. 3.040 billion (USD 324,000) was given as compensation to those who owned the depopulated poultry and were willing to cull their poultry to prevent broader AI. AI has infected poultry in 31 out of 33 provinces in Indonesia. Referred to FAO weekly report period August 30 – September 27, 2007, a total of 350 outbreak cases in poultry were detected in 10 districts of 5 provinces in Indonesia. These findings showed that AI in poultry which is endemic in most provinces, need more serious attention to control the disease.

As of September 21, 2007, a total of 106 human cases have been confirmed to be H5N1 infections; 85 of these cases were fatal. AI has infected humans in 11 provinces in Indonesia.

In Jakarta there are approximately 220 poultry collecting sites with a total capacity of around 425,000 birds, and 1,150 poultry slaughtering houses with a total slaughter capacity of 402,000 birds. In an effort to minimize the spread of AI in Jakarta, the provincial government of Jakarta issued a regulation on the Control, Raising, and Distribution of Poultry in Jakarta. This regulation prohibits poultry collecting sites and slaughter houses in Jakarta. There will be no more live poultry transported into or out from Jakarta. All poultry must be delivered to Jakarta markets as carcasses or poultry parts. It is expected that all the collecting and slaughtering sites will be relocated outside Jakarta no later than 3 years. However, questions remain regarding the effectiveness of the regulation to overcome AI problems in Jakarta. These include inadequate infrastructure at the new locations, and the high cost that will be required to relocate all of the collecting sites and slaughter houses away from Jakarta. As a result, the poultry sector is resisting implementation of the regulation.

The Minister of Agriculture indicates that the ministry will issue an AI free certificate for large-to medium-scale poultry farms in order to prevent them from suffering loss if their AIfree poultry meat is rejected by consumer. A large or medium-scale poultry farm will receive a certificate after being monitored for six months and proven to be free from AI without vaccination. The certificate will be evaluated regularly and can be withdrawn if an AI infection is found on the farm. A small farm may obtain such a certificate if it is united in a group of small farms and the birds are caged. However, the certification process appears to be work in progress, especially for small farmers.

APHIS/Jakarta supports several activities in collaboration with Minister of Agriculture and the Indonesia National Committee for Avian Influenza (KOMNAS FBPI). A series of Veterinary Epidemiology Workshops and Live Bird Market Seminars have been conducted throughout Indonesia. More than 250 Indonesian veterinarians participated in the Epidemiology Workshops and not less than 500 participants attended the Live Bird Market Seminars. Also an International Vaccine Seminar attended by around 200 participants was conducted on June this year. APHIS also sponsored 13 Indonesian lab technicians for standardized laboratory training in Taiwan and two Indonesian scientists participated in vaccine efficacy testing with ARS.

APHIS is also involved in supporting pilot project in Tangerang District, West Java. The objective of this project is to set a model for AI control in humans and poultry. This month APHIS will conduct Geospatial Epidemiology Training that will be attended by 50 participants in the district.

Consumption

Consumers continue to consume broiler meat and eggs regardless of announced AI outbreaks. Broiler meat consumption in 2007 is estimated to increase to 824,000 tons and will remain stable in 2008. Per capita consumption of chicken me at is 3.7 kg well below neighboring countries in Asia. Consumers prefer to consume broiler carcasses with an average weight of 1.5 kg.

Trade

During 2006, imports of poultry meat were recorded at 3,331 tons, mostly from Singapore (82 percent), and European Countries (13 percent). Japan still bans imports of Indonesian poultry products due to AI.

Policy

On August 13, 2007 the Minister of Agriculture lifted the import ban on whole poultry carcass and Mechanically Deboned Meat (MDM). The MDM must come from a country free from Notifiable Avian Influenza (NAI) disease, and come from a farm that is registered and under the control of authorized animal health official in the country of origin. Furthermore, the area within 50 km radius surrounding the farm must be declared free from Newcastle Disease (NDM) for the last 90 days prior to the exporting date. The MDM must contain no less than 14 percent protein, no more than 0.75 percent Ca, less than 30 percent fat, and have Maximum Residue Limits below the level specified in the Indonesian National Standard (SNI). The imported MDM is only to be used in animal based food processes for human consumption. The regulation continues permitting imports of whole carcasses.

The regulation represents a change in Indonesian policy. Previously, GOI determined that only “Safe, Healthy, Whole, and Halal (ASUH = Aman , Sehat, Utuh, and Halal)” poultry that can be imported into Indonesia, so MDM did not qualify. Indonesia banned imports of chicken leg quarter (CLQ) from the United States in 2000 claiming that CLQ do not meet the ASUH criteria because the government could not be assured that the slaughter was done according to halal. The industry concerned that permitting MDM imports is a precedent to allow import of CLQ from the United States in the future. The industry claims that U.S. CLQ imports will seriously threaten the sustainability of the domestic poultry sector.

Further Reading

- You can view the full report, including tables, by clicking here.

List of Articles in this series

To view our complete list of 2007 Poultry and Products Annual reports, please click here

October 2007