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Arizona infection, Arizonosis

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Introduction

Caused by the bacterium Arizona hinshawii, renamed Salmonella Arizonae. It affects turkeys, mainly in North America, and is not present in the UK turkey population. Mortality is 10-50% in young birds, older birds are asymptomatic carriers. Transmission is vertical, transovarian, and also horizontal, through faecal contamination of environment, feed etc, from long-term intestinal carriers, rodents, reptiles.

Signs

  • Dejection.
  • Inappetance.
  • Diarrhoea.
  • Vent-pasting.
  • Nervous signs.
  • Paralysis.
  • Blindness, cloudiness in eye.
  • Huddling near heat.

Post-mortem lesions

  • Enlarged mottled liver.
  • Unabsorbed yolk sac.
  • Congestion of duodenum.
  • Cheesy plugs in intestine or caecum.
  • Foci in lungs.
  • Salpingitis.
  • Ophthalmitis.
  • Pericarditis.
  • Perihepatitis.

Diagnosis

Isolation and identification, methods as per Salmonella spp. Differentiate from salmonellosis, coli-septicaemia.

Treatment

Injection of streptomycin, spectinomycin, or gentamycin at the hatchery is used in some countries. Formerly in-feed medication with nitrofurans was also used.

Prevention

Eradicate from breeder population, fumigation of hatching eggs, good nest and hatchery hygiene, inject eggs or poults with antibiotics, monitor sensitivity.