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Trichomoniasis, Canker, Frounce

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Introduction

Trichomonas gallinae is a protozoan parasite of pigeons and doves (canker), raptors (frounce), turkeys and chickens. It has variable pathogenicity. Morbidity is high and mortality varies but may be high. Transmission is via oral secretions in feed and water, and crop milk.

Signs

  • Mouth open.
  • Drooling and repeated swallowing movements.
  • Loss of conditon.
  • Watery eyes in some birds.
  • Nervous symptoms (rare).

Post-mortem lesions

  • Yellow plaques and raised cheesy masses in mouth, pharynx, oesophagus, crop and proventriculus.
  • Raptors may have liver lesions.

Diagnosis

Lesions, large numbers of protozoa in secretions. Differentiate from Pox and candidiasis.

Treatment

Previously approved products included dimetridazole, nithiazide, and enheptin. Organic arsenical compounds (where approved) and some herbal products may be of some benefit in managing this problem in food animals.

Prevention

Eliminate stagnant water, eliminate known carriers, add no new birds.